When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy. With help of students and managers, the material was tested in universities and corporations. According to one view, firms should be managed in the best interests of shareholders. Commercials for body fragrances associate those products with sex between beautiful people. Alternatively, we might see firms as legitimate speakers on behalf of certain points of view Stark 2010.
Introduction When it comes to determining a set of rules, guidelines or principles to follow in the business industry, many will agree that it is difficult for everybody to agree on one due to the complexities of dealing with human nature. However, if the worker specializes in one or two of these tasks, and combines his efforts with other workers who specialize in one or two of the other tasks, then together they can make thousands of pins per day. Within the ethics infrastructure, good communication is essential for a strong, aligned culture. Justice Justice can be defined as the importance of getting fair treatments, equality and having rights Rawl, 1999. Although all of these issues are controversial and have an important impact on society, they are not all moral issues. It is influenced by the characteristics of individuals e. Our analysis resulted in a typology, presented here, of the ways in which normative theory, and the difficulties within it, are handled in business ethics texts.
The authors begin with a focus on the difficulties faced by the individual expatriate manager, such as: 1 the difficulties of foreign business assignments, 2 the need for structure, training, and guidance, 3 foreign language proficiency, 4 learning about the culture, 5 recognizing the power of selective perception as influenced by culture e. But in some cases there is negotiation over price and other aspects of the transaction. Those who deny these assumptions will see some debates in business ethics e. The Consequentialist Framework In the Consequentialist framework, we focus on the future effects of the possible courses of action, considering the people who will be directly or indirectly affected. Questions about product safety are a matter of significant debate among economists, legal scholars, and public policy experts. Male and Female Morality A third area of moral psychology focuses on whether there is a distinctly female approach to ethics that is grounded in the psychological differences between men and women.
Suppose that white diners prefer to be served by white waiters rather than black waiters. Despite being widely accepted by the Nazi society, the genocide of Jews is considered to be ethically wrong by many Germans. As far as business ethics theories are concerned, it is one that is probably open to a great amount of interpretive differences. A second is that markets—featuring voluntary exchanges between buyers and sellers at mutually determined prices—should play an important role in the allocation of resources. Instead of deciding together how we want to ameliorate social ills affecting our fellow community members, we leave it up to private organizations to decide what to do. Socially responsible business is good business because of 1 the benefit of a good reputation, 2 rewards from socially responsible investors, 3 the cost of illegal conduct, 4 the cost of government regulation, 5 the positive effects of social responsibility on firm performance, and 6 the fact that social responsibility is right in itself.
Human rights and fundamental freedoms: this principle is based on belief in the inherent worth of every individual and the equality of rights of all human beings, but it often stands in conflict with national sovereignty e. The development of organizational culture requires a long view--as much as 6 to 15 years. Since I do not want my neighbor to steal my car, then it is wrong for me to steal her car. This public support for marriage equality did not come without a price. Each of these three broad categories contains varieties of approaches to ethics, some of which share characteristics across the categories. Obviously, this framework is useful in situations that ask what sort of person one should be.
They can include privacy, discrimination, harassment sexual and otherwise , and simply how people get along. A firm might move out of a state in response to the passage of a law it does not favor, or it may threaten to move out of a state if such a law is passed. In a sense, it is a search for an ideal litmus test of proper behavior. Justice is the obligation to treat others fairly, and nonmaleficence is to cause no harm or the least amount of harm possible. Hasan 2015 ; and requires alternative forms of 3 corporate governance Norman 2015; cf.
Its approach is pragmatic, assuming that organizational ethics is about human behavior. A care-based approach to morality, as it is sometimes called, is offered by feminist ethicists as either a replacement for or a supplement to traditional male-modeled moral systems. The field of business ethics examines moral controversies relating to the social responsibilities of capitalist business practices, the moral status of corporate entities, deceptive advertising, insider trading, basic employee rights, job discrimination, affirmative action, drug testing, and whistle blowing. Thus, the stalemate in normative ethics between conflicting theories prevents us from using a single decisive procedure for determining the morality of a specific issue. While different theorists give different definitions of whistleblowing see, e. On the other hand, it is not always possible to predict the consequences of an action, so some actions that are expected to produce good consequences might actually end up harming people.
More writers argue for shareholder primacy on consequentialist grounds. Because many times, business have to choose the greater of two goods or the lesser of two evils. Prenatal issues arise about the morality of surrogate mothering, genetic manipulation of fetuses, the status of unused frozen embryos, and abortion. Deontological theory states that ethical behavior should follow an established set of rules or principles in all types of situations. The Feminist Approach In recent decades, the virtue approach to ethics has been supplemented and sometimes significantly revised by thinkers in the feminist tradition, who often emphasize the importance of the experiences of women and other marginalized groups to ethical deliberation. Acting rightly thus requires being motivated by proper universal principles that treat everyone with respect. Efforts to increase artificially the wages of sweatshop workers, according to these writers, is misguided on two counts.