Although the French and American people had several distinct and differing motives for revolting against their ruling governments, some similar causes led to both revolutions, including the following: Economic struggles: Both the Americans and French dealt with a taxation system they found discriminating and unfair. Montesquieu also proposed a breakdown of government into separate branches. Some influences spilled over from the American Revolution that had success in 1776. Another way that the Enlightenment helped to shape the colonies was in terms of religion. He thought that a republic would give more power to the people and improve individual freedom.
The revolution was, unfortunately, very poorly planned and resulted in chaos, the opposite of what they aimed for. The French thought that if the American's army which wasn't good at the time could win over the well trained British then they could win too. This can be seen in the writings of Montesquieu, … Rousseau, and Voltaire. Individual Freedom Developed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The tax was enforced as fait du complait by the summer of 1789.
They believed a constitutional government would spell the end of absolutism and arbitrary decision making. When American colonists won independence from Great Britain in the , the French, who participated in the war themselves, were both close allies and key participants. This Wikipedia article gives you an in-depth overview of the Age of Enlightenment. This is how much they were out of touch with the people. It is the responsibility and the duty of government, Locke wrote, to uphold and protect the natural rights of individuals. Deism holds that God exists but does not intervene on Earth.
Instead of being tied to one religious authority, there were many choices in the colonies and people had a right to choose how to establish and maintain their connection to God. People destroyed Enlightenment documents out of fear that their country would turn demonic aAnd warlike like France had becomePrussia, Austria, and Russia all feared France because they bordered it so they prepared for war. It ushered in the new concept of the Republic. In the more narrow sense, it refers to material goods. A very harsh tyrant, Napolean Bonaparte was put in charge of the country.
The British government in London considered the distant colonies more as a possession than as an extension of its territory and people. The second part of this idea in his philosophy would later influence Karl Marx in his conception of Capital and Communism. Political, economical, and social problems in France during the 18th century led to the French Revolution. Liberty and Justice for All Inspired by revolts and prominent philosophers in Europe, several important documents emerged in Britain that set the stage for American freedom. They wanted a government where all men had the right to vote, and all citizens were equal before the law. Montesquieu's aim in The Spirit of the Laws is to explain human laws and social institutions.
All these laws are passed without consultation of the colonists. These men encouraged people to question the rule of authority, particularly in monarchical societies like France. In theoretical terms, many of the ideas were ill worked out. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. Jean Jacques Rousseau was the inspiration behind conservative, liberal and socialist theory.
The poor had to pay the most; royalty and church were tax free and existed in luxury from taxes collected. A short summary: The Enlightenment, also called the Age of Reason or the Age of Rationalism, was a period when European philosophers stressed the use of reason as the best method for learning the truth. The Ancien Régime also used torture to deal with its opponents, though this declined in the late 1700s and was formally abolished in May 1788. Newton developed the and universal gravitation, which led to improvements in understanding the Copernican heliocentric universe, according to the Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826 ,an American Founding Father, was heavily influenced by Enlightenment philosophy and spent several years in France. But as time went on they felt as if they were not being fought for. The second estate was made up of the rich nobles.
Until the modern era, most kings and governments claimed their authority came from God, a concept called divine right monarchy. He promoted the concepts of freedom of religion, freedom of expression and the separation of church and state. This lecture lists the various philosophical schools of thought during this period. The populace, especially the bourgeoisie, had resentment of royal absolutism, which they saw as limiting their chances of success in their lives. Also emerging from the Enlightenment, particularly in the writings of John Locke, was the concept of natural rights. Some of the scientific theories have evolved, but many remain as their Enlightenment authors wrote them.
The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement. Both the American Revolution and French Revolution were based on Enlightenment ideals. He designed a new social class hierarchy thatincluded the monarchy, aristocracy and the commons, completelyeliminating the First, Second and Third estates. They called for meetings to vote on subjects by a class single vote, eventually this led to the formation of the National Assembly after the system had upset the large majority of people, the Third Estate. On June 19th, 1789 Abbé Sieyès from the poorer clergy moved that the Third Estate, now meeting as the Communes, proceed with verification of its own powers and invite the other two estates to take part, but not to wait for them.