These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution. In instances of collective case study design where the researcher may use multiple case studies to examine one issue, the text recommends Yin 2009 logic of replication be used. The end result is a more compact summary that would have been difficult to accurately discern without the preceding steps of distillation. The recognition of the inevitability of subjectivity also yields the process of triangulation that utilizes the use of multiple sources, methods, investigators, and theories Creswell, 1998, Lincoln and Guba, 1985; Patton, 1990 to ensure the credibility of the research. Richard's public health projects have explored injury prevention and safety promotion and focused areas of farm safety, rural safety, occupational health and safety, falls, disasters, health promotion, and alcohol and aquatic safety. Interviews and focus groups, observations, and exploring artifacts are most commonly employed to collect and generate data with triangulation of methods and data, however, this is not exclusive. The narrative will, in the end, reflect the creativity of the writer, although the plan for the study, the proposal, might follow several of the procedures being discussed in the literature.
John W Creswell relates research designs to each of the traditions of inquiry and compares each of the research strategies for theoretical frameworks, writing introduction to studies, collecting data, analyzing data, writing the narrative, and employing standards of quality and verifying results. Life in the Community: Case Studies of Organizations Serving People with Developmental Disabilities in the Community. The researcher then makes assertions about the case. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among the Five Traditions. The dominance of research using experimental designs continued through the 1960s and 1970s with quantitative empirical results considered to be gold standard evidence. Case study research: Design and methods. Dependability is equivalent to the notion of reliability in quantitative methods and is the extent to which two or more people are likely to come to the same conclusions by examining the same evidence.
Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid. Ethnography: A way of seeing. This book explores the philosophical underpinnings, history and key elements of five qualitative inquiry traditions: biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study. While differences exist in some areas, commonalities are evident that can guide the application of a case study research design. These methods may be used alongside quantitative methods, scholarly or lay reviews of the literature, interviews with experts, and computer simulation, as part of multimethod attitude to data collection and analysis called Triangulation. He was a Senior Fulbright Scholar to South Africa in 2008 and to Thailand in 2012.
There are several different research approaches, or research designs, that qualitative researchers use. Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation 2nd ed. What is a case study and what is it good for?. He believed that there was a gap between psychology and quantitative research that could only be filled by conducting qualitative research. See image and insert it here.
Interview data needs to involve saturation before termination of data collection. Lutfiyya, The Variety of Community Experiences: Qualitative Studies of Family and Community Life. The Guilford Press: March 30, 2011. These techniques have been used extensively as a participatory qualitative technique and to make the familiar strange. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education, 1 1 , 1-13.
Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. No set format exists for planning a study. Qualitative methods and health policy research 1st edition. He lists a number of other researchers p. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. This step in a theoretical analysis or data analytic technique is further worked on e.
Unsourced material may be challenged and. The goal of a postpositivist researcher is to use science as a way to apprehend the nature of reality while understanding that all measurement is imperfect. Five journal articles in the appendix offer fascinating reading as well as examples of the five different qualitative designs. Qualitative Research Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. One such scenario is for datasets that are simply too large for a human to effectively analyze, or where analysis of them would be cost prohibitive relative to the value of information they contain.
The Polish peasant in Europe and America. In designing a study, one works with broad philosophical assumptions; possible frameworks, problems, and questions; and data collection through techniques such as interviews, observations, documents, and audio-visual materials. Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. The ways of participating and observing can vary widely from setting to setting as exemplified by Helen Schwartzman's primer on Ethnography in Organizations 1993. Ongoing application of and sound debate about the value, validity, and capability of case study research have strengthened the efficacy of case study approaches as powerful forms of qualitative research. An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding.
The starting point for this approach is the understanding of an individual biography in terms of its social constitution, as influenced by , , , and , and. What are the criteria to judge the value of the research? Qualitative methods and cross-method dialogue in political science. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Lutfiyya, The Variety of Community Experiences: Qualitative Studies of Family and Community Life. In particular, one could argue that qualitative researchers often reject natural science models of , prefer inductive, hypothesis-generating research processes and procedures over , are oriented towards investigations of meaning s rather than behaviour, and prefer data in the form of words and images, that are ideally naturally derived e. Challenges for a Service System in Transition: Ensuring Quality Community Experiences for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.