The groups most negatively affected by the Navigation Acts—colonial manufacturers and merchants; tobacco, rice, and sugar planters; and artisans and mechanics—were all central actors in prerevolutionary anti-British agitation. The English naval victories in 1653 the , the and the showed the supremacy of the Commonwealth navy in home waters. In particular, legislation regulating the transport of tobacco—a major commodity from the North American colonies —and the prohibition of French goods laid the foundation for the eventual passage of the Navigation Acts. These Acts had a significant impact on the Dutch, who did not produce any major goods themselves, and whose ships were forbidden in British trade. The 'goods and commodities' were tobacco, sugar, rice, cotton, wool, dyeing woods - indigo, etc.
This was great news for the American colonies. The Molasses Act of 1733, which raised duties on French West Indian sugar, angered Americans by forcing them to buy the more expensive British West Indian sugar. However, farther afield the Dutch predominated and were able to close down English commerce in the Baltic and the Mediterranean. For more details on this topic, see. In general, the colonists obeyed the Trade and Navigation Acts when they benefitted them and they ignored them when they ran contrary to colonial interests.
The northern colonies produced many of the same kinds of goods that England produced and continued to do so well into the 19th century. Yet that would change in the coming decades, as subsequent Navigation Acts - eventually backed by British soldiers - would push the colonists to boiling point. These products included wool, rice, cotton, tobacco, dyed woods, and indigo. The colonies had all originated for different reasons, and these differences hadn't disappeared despite mother England's attempts to ignore them. The act caused people to go into poverty. There was no attempt to disguise its purpose.
In the seventeenth century colonies were regarded as plantations existing solely for the benefit of the mother country. About the Author: Warren Hierl taught Advanced Placement U. The Navigational Acts were a set of laws or a law that restricted colonial America from trading goods freely with other countries. King Charles had other plans, he desperately needed money and so did England. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution 1951, repr. The North Carolina government consisted of the Governor, Council, and an Assembly. The Act offered England only limited solace.
The Navigation Act of 1673, also known as the Plantation Duty Act, required colonial ship captains to guarantee that they would deliver enumerated goods to England or suffer financial penalties. Needless to say, Great Britain wished to regain her old position in marine trade by dethroning the Dutch. They had overtaken Great Britain in trade across Europe, between Britain and her colonies, and even dominated the British coast itself. This policy, called 'mercantilism', also gave importance to setting up colonies, which would provide raw materials for the mother nation, and serve as a market for the goods she produced. Everything they had they could only be acquired by eitherhome made, grown, or bought from the pricey British. The 1651 basically stated that 'no goods of the growth, production, or manufacture of Asia, Africa, or America, shall be imported only by ships that belong to the people of the British Commonwealth.
The Act banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies, and banned third-party countries' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England. All products had to go through these ports controlled by England. Stricter enforcement under the of 1764 became one source of resentment of Great Britain by merchants in the American colonies. Such powers include Great Britain, France, Sweden, and Spain, who colonized countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Three acts of Parliament -- the Navigation Act of 1660, the Staple Act of 1663, and the Act of 1673 imposing Plantation Duties -- laid the foundation of the old colonial system of Great Britain. In general, the colonists obeyed the Trade and Navigation Acts when they benefitted them and they ignored them when they ran contrary to colonial interests. The English proposed the joint conquest of all remaining Spanish and Portuguese possessions.
The colonists felt unrepresented by Parliament, and although most of the Acts had little effect on the average colonist, they drastically affected the livelihoods of merchants. There were several factors that led to Charles's decision. Since the American coast was full of out-of-the-way harbors, the Navigation Acts were largely difficult to enforce. Repeal The Navigation Acts were repealed in 1849 under the influence of a philosophy. The original words and text of the 1660 Navigation Act are detailed as follows: Navigation Act of 1660 For the increase of shipping and encouragement of the navigation of this nation, wherein, under the good providence and protection of God, the wealth, safety, and strength of the kingdom is so much concerned…from thence forward, no goods or commodities whatsoever shall be imported into or exported out of any lands, islands, plantations, or territories to his Majesty belonging or in his possession…in Asia, African, or America, in any other ship or ships, vessel or vessels whatsoever, but in such ships or vessels as do truly and without fraud belong only to the people of England…or are of the built of and belonging to any of the said lands, islands, plantations, or territories, as the proprietors and right owners thereof, and whereof the master and ¾ of the mariners at least are English. In this way, the South, for a time, was enabled to avoid the drastic burden of the Navigation Acts.
This act was expanded and altered by the succeeding Navigation Acts of 1662, 1663, 1670, 1673, and by the Act to Prevent Frauds and Abuses of 1696. Ideally, colonies were to produce needed raw materials that would fuel the development of industry in the mother country. In spite of all efforts, the Navigation Acts could scarcely be enforced at all as colonists became lawbreakers. The obvious solution seemed to be to seal off the English and Scottish markets to these unwanted imports. Although their overall economic impact was minimal, the Navigation Acts imposed burdens on those segments of American colonial society best positioned to foment a rebellion. English direct trade was crowded out by a sudden influx of commodities from the Levant, Mediterranean and the Spanish and Portuguese empires, and the via the Dutch Entrepôt, carried in Dutch ships and for Dutch account. For trade between Great Britain and other European countries, ships had to be British, or built in the European country which produced the goods.
The Acts were an attempt to put the theory of Mercantilism into practice in the British colonies. The East India trading company is an excellent example of this, gaining full provincial control over Bengal and its sub-regions with the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad, while being governed privately rather than directly by the British government. Molasses Act 1733 The 1733 levied heavy duties on the trade of sugar from the to the American colonies, forcing the colonists to buy the more expensive sugar from the instead. From 1700 to 1770 the beaver skins that were exported from the American colonies to Great Britain were used to make 21 million hats which the British exported from England to other parts of Europe. The products were checked and then were permitted to travel to the colonies.