In the first half of the eighteenth century another advance occurred. The frontier reached by the Pacific Railroad, surveyed into rectangles, guarded by the United States Army, and recruited by the daily immigrant ship, moves forward at a swifter pace and in a different way than the frontier reached by the birch canoe or the pack horse. The ranges of the Great Plains, with ranch and cowboy and nomadic life, are things of yesterday and of to-day. It finds him a European in dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought. The Atlantic frontier was compounded of fisherman, far trader, miner, cattle-raiser, and farmer. As has been pointed out, the frontier is productive of individualism. The unequal rate of advance compels us to distinguish the frontier into the trader's frontier, the rancher's frontier, or the miner's frontier, and the farmer's frontier.
Most migrant wagon trains, for example, were composed of extended kinship networks. This proved to be an important educational influence, since it was almost the only way in which the pioneer learned what was going on in the East. The coast was preponderantly English, but the later tides of continental immigration flowed across to the free lands. In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. He decided to lead several hundred people on a march to find refuge in Canada. Ray Allen Billington, The Genesis of the Frontier Thesis: A Study in Historical Creativity San Marino, Calif.
The United States Army fought a series of Indian wars in Minnesota, Dakota, and the Indian Territory. On the relation of frontier conditions to Revolutionary taxation, see Sumner, Alexander Hamilton, Ch. In what ways does the frontier relate to American values like democracy and individualism? Western historians who still adhere roughly to Turner's approach accuse their opponents of mistaking a simple-minded political correctness for good scholarship in their quest to recount only the doom and gloom of the Western past. For instance, liberalism cannot be blamed for all issues during this period since McCarthy, a Republican, had further perpetuated the already prominent fear of communism in society. The Public Domain The public domain has been a force of profound importance in the nationalization and development of the Government.
In the middle of this century the line indicated by the present eastern boundary of Indian Territory, Nebraska, and Kansas marked the frontier of the Indian country. The land hunger of the Virginians drew them down the rivers into Carolina, in early colonial days; the search for soils took the Massachusetts men to Pennsylvania and to New York. The American frontier is sharply distinguished from the European frontier-a fortified boundary line running through dense populations. What activities, identities, geographic locations, etc. Traders followed the Delaware and Shawnese Indians to the Ohio as early as the end of the first quarter of the century. In December of 1865 the 13th amendment was added to the constitution, which ended slavery. It puts him in the log cabin of the Cherokee and Iroquois and runs an Indian palisade around him.
But we have in addition to this a recurrence of the process of evolution in each western area reached in the process of expansion. The geologist traces patiently the shores of ancient seas, maps their areas, and compares the older and the newer. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on going through the process. The competition of the unexhausted, cheap, and easily tilled prairie lands compelled the farmer either to go west and continue the exhaustion of the soil on a new frontier, or to adopt intensive culture. The Ohio, the Great Lakes, the Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Platte, the lines of western advance, were ascended by traders. See the suggestive paper by Prof.
This view dominated religious historiography for decades. When the mines and the cowpens were still near the fall line the traders' pack trains were tinkling across the Alleghenies, and the French on the Great Lakes were fortifying their posts, alarmed by the British trader's birch canoe. Civilization entered the wilderness in the 1880s. Thus an intellectual stream from New England sources fertilized the West. It produces antipathy to control, and particularly to any direct control. Too exclusive attention has been paid by institutional students to the Germanic origins, too little to the American factors.
When problems began to surface, the. It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in the hunting shirt and the moccasin. Hehn, Das Salz Berlin, 1873. But we have in addition to this a recurrence of the process of evolution in each western area reached in the process of expansion. The Frontier: American Identity According to Turner, the history of America up until 1890, had been unique. This group wanted to create villages with schools, roads, and courthouses.
The settler is ready to sell out and take the advantage of the rise in property, push farther into the interior and become, himself, a man of capital and enterprise in turn. Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. The West of the war of 1812, the West of Clay, and Benton, and Harrison, and Andrew Jackson, shut off by the Middle States and the mountains from the coast sections, had a solidarity of its own with national tendencies. In this advance the frontier is the outer edge of the wave—the meeting point between savagery and civilization. Urban historian challenged the Frontier Thesis in his first asset, The Urban Frontier 1959 , asserting that western cities such as , , and , not the farmer pioneers, were the catalysts for western expansion. The Middle region was less English than the other sections. See, for example, the speech of Clay, in the House of Representatives, January 30, 1824.
By 1880 the settled area had been pushed into northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, along Dakota rivers, and in the Black Hills region, and was ascending the rivers of Kansas and Nebraska. But in the case of the United States we have a different phenomenon. Thus it became the typically American region. The farmers met Indians armed with guns. Migration has become almost a habit in the west. Minnesota and Wisconsin still exhibited frontier conditions, but the distinctive frontier of the period is found in California, where the gold discoveries had sent a sudden tide of adventurous miners, and in Oregon, and the settlements in Utah. It puts him in the log cabin of the Cherokee and Iroquois and runs an Indian palisade around him.
And yet, in spite of this opposition of the interests of the trader and the farmer, the Indian trade pioneered the way for civilization. The first settlers who arrived on the east coast in the 17th century acted and thought like Europeans. Growth of Democracy But the most important effect of the frontier has been in the promotion of democracy here and in Europe. On the tide of the Father of Waters, North and South met and mingled into a nation. Go see the forts that our king has established and you will see that you can still hunt under their very walls.